Boone, C.G.; Buckley, G.B.; Grove, J.M.; Sister, C. 2009. Parks and People: an environmental justice inquiry in Baltimore, Maryland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 99(4):1-21.
Lord, C. and Norquist, K. 2010. "Cities as Emergent Systems: Race as a Rule in Organized Complexity." Environmental Law. 40:551-597.
Buckley, G.L. and C.G. Boone. 2011. "To promote the material and moral welfare of the community": Neighborhood Improvement Associations in Baltimore, Maryland, 1900 -- 1945." In: Environmental and Social Justice in the City: Historical Perspectives, eds. R. Rodger and G. Massard-Guilbaud. Cambridge: White Horse Press, 43-65.
Disamenity Impact Zones 1940 to 2000. Researchers performed a statistical analysis for the intersection between race, income, and the location of disamenities. Specifically, for each decade, the researchers looked at neighborhoods that were close to the zoning special-use permits approved for that decade (the disamenities), surrounded by other neighborhoods close to special-use permits. These neighborhoods can be described as "low distance" zones on the map because they are close to the disamenities during that decade. Researchers then isolated those neighborhoods that are farthest from zoning variance approvals surrounded by other neighborhoods that are a long way from those disamenities. These neighborhoods were called "high distance" zones, because they are a long distance from the disamenities during that decade. Some neighborhoods fall into a middle category and might be called neutral neighborhoods. In the maps, the low-distance (high-impact) zones are lighter and the high-distance (low-impact) zones are darker.
Charles Lord and Keaton Norquist (2010)
Correlation Between Race and Distance to Disamenities. Close analysis shows that for each decade between 1940 and 2000, there was a correlation between race and the distance to disamenities. Specifically, the higher the percentage of African-American residents, the closer to disamenities, and the higher the percentage of white residents the further away those neighborhoods are from disamenities. Beginning in 1970, the correlation between race and proximity to disamenities begins to weaken, and in 2000 there is no correlation.
Charles Lord and Keaton Nordquist (2010).