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Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, S.L. Collins, S.R. Archer, M.S. Bret-Harte, B.E. Ewers, D.P. Peters, D.R. Young, G.R. Shaver, E. Pendall, and M.B. Cleary. 2008. Shrub encroachment in North American grasslands: Shifts in growth form dominance rapidly alters control of ecosystem carbon inputs. Global Change Biology 14:615-623.
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Photograph of an experimental watershed on Konza Prairie that has been burned every four years in spring since 1971. Note the high abundance and cover of several woody shrub species. Low and Intermediate fire frequencies allow for rapid increases in woody plant cover in these grasslands, with significant impacts on biodiversity, grassland consumers, and ecosystem processes. 6/2004