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Tracking Ice Cover

Synthesis of long-term records of lake and river ice duration throughout the Northern Hemisphere provided evidence that freshwater ecosystems are responding to climate change over the past 150 years.

Lenters, J.D., T.K. Kratz, and C.J. Bowser. 2005. Effects of climate variability on lake evaporation: Results of a long-term energy budget study of Sparkling Lake, northern Wisconsin (USA). Journal of Hydrology 308:168-195.
Magnuson, J.J., D.M. Robertson, B.J. Benson, R.H. Wynne, D.M. Livingstone, T. Arai, R.A. Assel, R.G. Barry, V. Card, E. Kuusisto, N.G. Granin, T.D. Prouse, K.M. Stewart, and V.S. Vuglinski. 2000. Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289:1743-1746.
Weyhenmeyer, G.A., D.M.Livingstone, M. Meili, O. Jensen, B.J. Benson, and J.J. Magnuson. 2011. Large geographical differences in the sensitivity of ice-covered lakes and rivers in the Northern Hemisphere to temperature changes. Global Change Biology 17: 268-275.
Dr. John J. Magnuson
Ice formation along the shoreline of Lake Mendota Wisconsin, a core study lake of the North Temperate Lakes LTER site. Ice duration records for Lake Mendota have been kept since 1855.
Dr. John Magnuson
Duration of ice on North Temperate Lakes LTER study lake, Lake Mendota, Wisconsin from 1855 to 2010. Trend line indicates the average long-term shortening of ice cover on the lake by approximately 20 days over the period of record. This downward trend is mirrored by several lakes and rivers throughout the Northern Hemisphere.
Magnuson et al. (2000) and North Temperate Lakes LTER database (



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