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Changes in Ice and Heat

PAL scientists have documented a remarkable decrease in the length of the sea ice season by up to 3 months and an exponential increase in ocean heat content of waters being delivered to western Antarctica via the Circumpolar Current

Papers presenting the above information regarding the increased ocean heat content are currently in preparation.
Cook, A., A. Fox, D. Vaughan, and J. Ferrigno, Retreating glacier fronts on the antarctic peninsula over the past half-century, science, 308(5721), 541, 2005.
Payne, A., A. Vieli, A. Shepherd, D. Wingham, and E. Rignot, Recent dramatic thinning of largest west antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett, 31, 23, 2004.
Rignot, E., J. L. Bamer, M. R. V. D. Broeke, C. Davis, Y. Li, W. J. V. D. Berg, and E. V. Meijgaard, Recent antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modeling, Nature Geoscience, 1, 106-110, 2008.
Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, and J. Mansley, Inland thinning of the amundsen sea sector, west antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 2-1, 2002.
Steig, E.J., D. P. Schneider, S. D. Rutherford, M. E. Mann, J. C. Comiso, D. T. Shindell, Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year, Nature, 457, doi: 10.1038/nature07669, 2009.
Thoma, M., A. Jenkins, D. Holland, and S. Jacobs, Modelling circumpolar deep water intrusions on the amundsen sea continental shelf, antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(18), L18,602, doi: 10.1029/2008GL034939, 2008.
Turner, J., T. A. Lachlan-Cope, S. Colwell, G. J. Marshall, W. M. Connolley, 2006. Significant Warming of the Antarctic Winter Troposphere, Science, 311, 1914-1917.
Vaughan, D. G., Marshall, G. J., Connolley, W. M., Parkinson, C., Mulvaney, R., Hodgson, D. A., King, J. C., Pudsey, C. J., Turner, J. 2003 Recent rapid regional climate warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. Climatic Change 60, 243-274.
Dr. Douglas G. Martinson
Dr. Sharon E. Stammerjohn
Map of Antarctic sea ice duration trends, showing also yearly changes in PAL LTER ice season duration (inset).
Updated figures based on Stammerjohn et al (2011, DSRII, 58, pp. 999-1018) and Ducklow et al (Royal Society chapter.)
Graph of 8 independent studies showing increase in global deep ocean heat content (State of the Planet, 2008). Red solid squares show increased heat content of UCDW an area extending from WAP to offshore of where WAIS ice stream enter sea.
Figure recently constructed for publication in Webb and Martinson, in Nature Geoscience on alarming ocean warming in the western Antarctic.



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