The general goal of the workshop was to complete and extend our cross-site synthetic research begun in previous meetings supported by this x-site program. At the end of the workshop we decided to plan to host two additional workshops in order to (1) finish a manuscript based on our previous analysis of the ecological consequences of shrub expansion in grasslands and (2) to strategize regarding additional data collection needs to strengthen our synthetic database focused on LTER and non-LTER sites across North America.