In this country invasive species are viewed with more concern than are genetically modified organisms. While this view may change, the scientific issues associated with invasive species strongly overlap and occasionally are identical to those of genetically modified organisms. Vulnerability of native species to the introduction of novel genetic material, including swamping of gene pools, competitive and trophic effects, and patterns of spread are a few of the scientific issues common to both biological invasions and the release of genetically modified organisms. Thus, this is an important policy and management area that could benefit from LTER studies. The academic strengths of the current working group are focused on plant species. However, in developing an outline for a more comprehensive LTER and ILTER effort, attention will be given to other functional groups, and other LTER scientists interested in invasive animal and microbial topics will be recruited for subsequent efforts.