Site: Palmer Antarctica LTER

Credit: PAL and US LTER

Over the past five decades, the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced changes related to rapidly warming winter atmospheric temperatures, dramatic sea ice declines, and accelerated glacial melting. Interactions between ocean and atmospheric climate cycles (El Niño, Southern Annual Mode) influence shoreward heat delivery associated with deep warm ocean waters and alter the upper mixed ocean layer, productivity at the base of the food web, and carbon cycling on the continental shelves.